Emergency Room

What is an Emergency Room?

Emergency room is a health unit established in hospitals and other health institutions to serve patients who require emergency medical assistance. Emergency rooms operate by dividing the patients into various units according to their complaints and the urgency of their health condition. After the increase in the intensity of the emergency rooms since the 1960s, this unit started to serve by dividing into 3 groups. These groups are categorized according to the symptoms of the patient as follows:

Red area:This group concerns priority emergency patients. The red area unit deals with life-threatening serious injury or serious illness. Patients included in the red area are in the class requiring the most emergency. Medical interventions for people with symptoms such as heart attack symptoms, serious respiratory problems, stab wounds and multiple trauma are carried out in the red area unit. In addition, patients brought to the emergency room by ambulance are also included in this group.

Yellow area: Yellow area unit provides service for medical intervention in case of having diseases that risk permanent damage to the body as a result of an accident, trauma, etc. Patients who are directed to the yellow area can wait for a while before the intervention.

Green area:Green area unit provides service in cases of mild injury and illness. The health status of the patients in the green area is less urgent than the patients in the yellow and red areas. For this reason, patients in this group may wait for a long time, especially in crowded hospitals.

After the triage (system for determining the priority of medical intervention in the emergency rooms) of the patients, the intervention should be done in the relevant unit, which has been explained above.

What Diseases Does the Emergency Room Treat?

As stated above, the emergency room provides a wide range of services from mild illnesses to severe illnesses and injuries. The emergency room deals with many health problems, from respiratory distress to earache, from bleeding to sore throat. The diseases treated within the scope of the emergency service are as follows within the framework of the definition of triage categories:

Diseases within the scope of the red area unit are listed as follows:


•Cardiac arrest (Cardiopulmonary arrest)


•Airway obstruction

•Respiratory distress

•Multiple trauma

•Anaphylaxis (allergic shock that can lead to death)

•Febrile convulsions (especially common in children aged 3-5 years)

•Severe painful conditions


•Uncontrollable bleeding in various parts of the body


Diseases within the scope of the yellow area unit are listed as follows:

•Abdominal pain

•Sore throat with difficulty swallowing

•Moderate burns

•Renal stones (kidney stones)

•Long bone or hip fractures

•Cuts on the body that are not amputated

•Multiple or open fractures

•Severe headache without fever

Diseases within the scope of the yellow area unit are listed as follows:


•Chronic joint pain

•Chronic headache


•Wound care

• Vaginal discharge

•Common cold complaints

•Minor ear pain

•Minor isolated limb injury

•Insect bites that do not cause anaphylaxis (do not cause allergic shock)

•Suture removal (removal of stitches)

The list of diseases that the emergency room deals with according to the international parameters is presented below:

•Terror, sabotage, shooting, stabbing, fighting, etc.


•Suicide attempt

•Traffic accident

•Severe burns

•Any condition that causes loss of consciousness

•Uremic and diabetic coma [Conditions that can be experienced from blurring of consciousness caused by kidney failure and diabetes to complete loss of consciousness (coma)]

•Meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess

•Sudden paralysis (stroke)

•Cases due to serious allergies (In these cases, symptoms such as deterioration in heart rhythm, severe allergies that may cause obstruction in the respiratory tract, or low blood pressure can be observed)

•Migraine and/or vomiting, headaches with loss of consciousness

•Hypothermia, frostbite

•Diver's disease (decompression) (popularly known as "the bends")

•Fall from height

•Serious eye injuries

•Acute psychotic episodes leading to extreme aggression

•Serious work accidents, amputation

•Fractures of the lower extremity and spine: leg fractures and any spinal fractures with major external or internal bleeding

•Renal colic

•Life-threatening internal or external bleeding due to trauma (acute massive hemorrhages)

•Obstruction, perforation, inflammation or knotting of hollow organs (stomach, intestine, etc.) (acute abdomen)

•Electric shock

•Heart attack, arrhythmia (irregularity of the heart rhythm), hypertensive (related to high blood pressure) crises (Such conditions can cause brain hemorrhage)

•Asthma attack, acute respiratory problems




•Dialysis disease with general condition disorder

•Loss of consciousness in newborns

•High fever problem that can occur due to various reasons such as infectious diseases, heat stroke, poisoning (It can cause problems such as heart rhythm disorder, convulsions. Fever is 39.5 and above on average)

•Birth activities that start, in which the water sac breaks

•Dangerous deterioration of the general health status due to reasons such as inadequate care, severe illness, inadequate nutrition, and old age.

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