Lung Cancer, Symptoms and Treatment

Experts stated that Lung Cancer is mostly seen in men in Turkey and said that the number of patients diagnosed around the world is approaching 3 millions when 2018 data is taken into consideration.

Stating that the number of patients diagnosed with lung cancer around the world approached 3 millions in 2018 and 1 million 76 thousand people died in the same year, experts emphasized that although lung cancer is mostly seen in men in Turkey, it is also increasing rapidly among female cancers.
Passive smoking, as well as being an active smoker, are the most important causes of lung cancer. In addition to smoking, environmental and occupational factors and air pollution are among the important risk factors today.

What is Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is malignant tumors formed by groups of altered cells that proliferate uncontrollably and abnormally in the lung tissue.

It is among the most common cancers all over the world and ranks first in cancer deaths in both men and women.

What are the Types of Lung Cancer?

It is divided into 2 main groups as Small Cell and Non Small Cell cancers. The treatment approaches of these two groups are completely different from each other.

Small Cell Lung Canceris a type of lung cancer that has a much more aggressive course and spreads rapidly. Basically, chemotherapytakes the primary place in its treatment.

Non-Small Cell Lung Canceris a type of lung cancer of which the treatment options are determined according to the stage in which it is detected, together with its different subtypes.

In the early stages, surgery can provide high rates of disease-free survival, and as the stage progresses,chemotherapy, radiotherapyand, if necessary, immunotherapiesare added to the treatment to increase the effectiveness.

What are the Causes of Lung Cancer?

Passive smoking, as well as being an active smoker, are the most important causes of lung cancer. In addition to smoking, environmental and occupational factors are among the important risk factors today.


•Passive Smoking Exposure

•Genetic Factors


•Family history

•Metals “Arsenic(As) – Chromium(Sn) – Nickel(Ni)”

•Exhaust gas

•Asbestos “Silicate minerals in fiber structure”

•Silica “Silicon dioxide dusts exposed in mines, clay, cement and coal mines”

Smoking-related and non-smoking-related lung cancer differ from each other. Environmental effects such as air pollution, coal fire, radon gas and asbestos can also cause lung cancer. Therefore, it is necessary not to ignore possible symptoms by acting on a clear opinion that only smokers get lung cancer.

What are the Symptoms of Lung Cancer?

The most common symptom of lung cancer is a persistent coughand should not be underestimated as it is thought to be due to reasons such as smoking.

•If the cough lasts more than 3 weeks,

•If there has been a change in the form of your cough,

•If coughing comes with bloody sputum

it should definitely be predicted as a sign of lung canceranda specialist should be consulted immediately.


  • Shortness of breath,
  • Wheezing,
  • Loss of appetite,
  • Reduced weight,
  • Fever,
  • Hoarseness,
  • Chest pain,
  • Swelling of the face and neck,
  • Shoulder and arm pain,
  • Back pain,
  • Difficulty in swallowing,
  • Head and bone pain, and
  • Fatigue and weakness

arecounted among the symptoms of lung cancer.Since these symptoms can be seen in many diseases, they can get neglected.

Early diagnosis is very important because lung cancer can spread rapidly tobones, liver, brain and adrenal glands.

Where Lung Cancer Metastasizes



•Adrenal gland


•The opposite lung

Symptoms of lung cancer can be quite insidious.Cancer can occur without any symptoms in an average of a quarter of patients, most people can learn that they have cancer when they have a lung x-ray for other reasons, soroutine check-ups are very important.

Can Cancer Be Prevented by Early Diagnosis in Lung Cancer?

The formation of symptoms in lung cancer can take several years and sometimes progress insidiously without any symptoms, so it is a type of cancer that cannot be evaluated in screening programs.

How often should a check-up be made for the Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Lung Cancer?

Checkup Frequency for NON-Smokers

It is very important for everyone over the age of 40 who does not smoke and does not have any complaints to undergo a routine check-up once a year for early diagnosis, whether or not they have a history of cancer in their family.

Chest X-rays taken during the controls, will give information about whether there is a suspicious lesion in the lungs.

Appointments can be made for Chest DiseasesorThoracic Surgeryphysicians for controls. Click to make an appointment.

Checkup Frequency for SMOKERS

It is very important for everyone over the age of 40 who smokes and does not have any complaintsto undergo a routine check-up once a yearfor early diagnosis.

Low-dose lung tomography (thorax CT = Chest CT CT)taken during the controls,for individuals in the high-risk groupis very important in detecting early stage lesions.

Appointments can be made forChest DiseasesorThoracic Surgeryphysicians for controls.

Click to make an appointment.

Diagnosis and Treatment Methods in Lung Cancer

What are Lung Cancer Diagnostic Methods?

•Radiological Examinations

1) X-ray

2) Tomography

3) MRI

•Nuclear Medicine Tests


2) Bone Scintigraphy

•Interventional Methods

1) Bronchoscopy

2) Mediastinoscopy

3) Videothoracoscopy

4) Thoracotomy

Lung Cancer Diagnostic Methods

Lung cancer is divided into two main groups as small cella nd non-small celland these cancers have different genetic features.

In patients who come with the suspicion of lung cancer, first of all, the patient's complaints are listened in detail; The health history of themselves and their family is learned.

Then, the patient is evaluated with X-ray, tomography, MRI, PET Tomography imaging methods.

If cancer is suspected, tissue biopsy is performed for the lung and/or lymph node. If lung cancer is suspected, sputum examination (sputum cytology; examination of the material coming out of the mucous membrane of the lungs with a deep cough under the microscope) may also be requested by the doctor. This test is a simple and useful test for detecting lung cancer.

Lung Cancer Stages

Lung cancer is defined in 4 stages.

Stage 1 Lung Cancer: If the cancer is in the lung and smaller than 5 cm, it is defined as Stage1.

Stage 2 Lung Cancer: If the cancer has spread to the nearest lymph nodes (N1) or is only in the vicinity of the diaphragm or pleura (lung membrane), it is defined as Stage2.

Stage 3 Lung Cancer: If the cancer is

•closer to the point where the trachea leaves for both lungs (carina), or

•if there is large vessel invasion (involvement), or

•if it spreads in the lung,

it is defined as Stage3.

Stage 4 Lung Cancer:If the cancer has metastasized (spreaded) to non-adjacent organs (liver, adrenal glands, bones, etc.), it is called Stage4.

Treatment protocols for lung cancer differ for each stage.

What are Lung Cancer Treatment Methods?


1) Curative (Anatomical resection)

2) Palliative

•Medical Oncology

1) CT

2) Immunotherapy

3) Targeted Therapies

•Radiation Oncology

Treatment Methods in Lung Cancer

Lung cancer treatment, as with other types of cancer, depend on;

•The general health status of the patient,

•The stage of the disease and

•Cancer Type.

It varies depending on many factors, and different treatment combinations and personalized treatment are applied.

The type of surgical intervention depends on the location of the cancer in the lung.

The group called as stage 1 lung canceris early diagnosed lung cancer andhas a high healing rate.Surgery is the most appropriate treatment optionbecause it does not spread to lymph nodes and does not metastasize. At the end of all examinations, it was observed that the disease-free survival was higher in the patient group that could be treated with surgery compared to other treatment methods.

However due to;

•location of the tumor,

•the size of the tumor,

•Spread of the tumor or

•Patient-related factors,

Methods such aschemotherapy and radiotherapyare also applied in the patient group who cannot undergo surgery.

These treatment methods can be applied alone or in combination with other treatment options.

According to the cellular structure of the tumor and some microscopic features,smart drugs and targeted drug applicationstook their place among the current treatment methods.

Vaccination in lung cancerin patients with advanced lung cancer who especially benefit from medical treatmentstarted to be applied.

Which physician should be consulted for the diagnosis, examination and treatment of lung cancer?

Branches that can be applied for Lung Cancer

•Thoracic Surgery


•Medical Oncology

•Radiation Oncology

It is recommended to apply to the branches of Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery for the diagnosis and examination of Lung Cancer.

In lung cancer, the treatment that provides the most effective and disease-free survival in suitable patients is "surgery". For this reason, it is recommended that patients diagnosed with Lung Cancer apply to a Thoracic Surgery physician in the first place.

Depending on the stage of the disease, the size and location of the tumor, a multidisciplinary treatment approach may come to the fore with Medical Oncology and/or Radiation Oncology departments when necessary.

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