ВТОРОЕ МЕДИЦИНСКОЕ ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
What is Pancreatic Cancer?

One of the important organs of the body, the pancreas is located in the back of the abdomen. This organ is very close to the stomach, duodenum and large intestine. The pancreas, which has an extremely important task in the body, performs the function of digesting the foods consumed by people during the day and balancing the glucose provided by the foods at the required level. Even a minor damage to this organ can cause serious problems for the body.

What is Pancreatic Cancer?

Pancreatic cancer, which is caused by malignant masses that will form in any part of the pancreas, is one of the types of cancer that is difficult to diagnose early because it progresses in a short time and without symptoms. Cancer cells that will form in the pancreas can spread to other organs in a short time, so it is necessary to consult specialist doctors when the slightest symptom appears. The most common type of pancreatic cancer, which has different types, is called "adenocancer".

Types of Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer, which has more than one type, is classified into two types. The most common is exocrine pancreatic cancer, which is caused by tumors formed in the ducts carrying pancreatic juice. The endocrine type is endocrine pancreatic cancer with tumors in the cells that produce hormones. These pancreatic cancer types are also classified according to the course of the cancer in the body.

Regional Pancreatic Cancer

The cancer has spread to nearby blood vessels and lymph nodes along with the pancreas, but has not reached distant organs. This type of cancer is not suitable for surgical intervention.

Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

The pancreas has not only spread to nearby blood vessels and lymph nodes, but has also spread to the liver, lungs, and even bones. In this case, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are applied as treatment.

Recurrent pancreatic cancer

It is the name given to the type of cancer that recurs in or near the surgically treated area after treatment.

Neuroendocrine Pancreatic Cancer

Neuroendocrine type is divided into two as resectable and unresectable. Resectable types are suitable for surgical applications. With the help of medical imaging methods and various tests, the size and location of the tumors are determined. The tumor can be easily removed by surgery if the size of the tumor, metastasis status or location factors allow for surgical intervention. Unresectable pancreatic cancer is a type that is not suitable for surgical intervention. In this situation, methods for endocrine cancer are applied to patients and an appropriate treatment is determined with molecular imaging systems.

What are the Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer?

Pancreatic cancer is a disease that causes almost no symptoms in its initial stages and is therefore difficult to detect. However, as it progresses, it starts to give some symptoms. Common pancreatic cancer symptoms seen in many people include:

      Yellowing of the eyes and skin

      Loss of appetite and involuntary excessive weight loss

      Pain in the upper abdomen and back

      feeling of depression

      Blood coagulation

      Weakness

      Swelling and indigestion

In addition to these, there are many other symptoms of the disease such as nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and pale skin. One of the first symptoms that manifest itself in the early period is usually jaundice. This problem first manifests itself in the eyes. Then it spreads to various parts of the skin. The pain in the abdomen is mild at first, but then turns into severe pain that hits the back.

The confusion of the symptoms of pancreatic cancer with the symptoms of different diseases also makes the diagnosis difficult from time to time. Therefore, if a few of the above symptoms are present, it is important to take the symptoms seriously and see a specialist doctor without wasting time for the success of the treatment.

What are the Causes of Pancreatic Cancer?

There are many conditions that can be counted among the causes of pancreatic cancer. In the groups at risk, individuals who frequently smoke heavily and those with overweight problems take the first place. The most common cause in the vast majority of patients is smoking. However, a family history of cancer may also be one of the triggers.

Nutritional habits are also one of the serious factors that can lead to this disease. Not consuming too much fruit and vegetables, and eating foods with high calories and protein can seriously increase the risk of developing disease in individuals who are prone to the disease. Conditions such as excessive weight gain, occupational exposure to various petroleum products or chemical products, and diabetes are also seen as important triggers of this disease.

Pancreatic cancer is more common in men than women. At the same time, it is one of the conditions determined as a result of research, in which the disease also increases with age. It has been observed that this cancer is more common over the age of 45. However, there is a risk of contracting the disease at an earlier age.

What are the Diagnostic Methods in Pancreatic Cancer?

This disease, which settles and develops silently in the patient's body, does not show itself much at first. However, over time, it starts to give symptoms, and early treatment in this process creates an easier treatment chance for the patient. In order to diagnose pancreatic cancer, some applications should be made.

Ultrasonography

Issues such as the presence of a mass on the pancreas, the size of the mass, its proximity to its surroundings, the degree of spread, and its proximity to the vessels, if any, are determined in detail using ultrasonography.

Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging:

In computerized tomography, known as CT for short, imaging is provided with a drug to be administered through the mouth and intravenous route. With this method, a 95% definitive diagnosis can be made. Differential factors of tumors can also be detected with MRI. It is possible to use these two methods together in the diagnosis phase.

Blood Tests

Various blood tests are performed to measure the degree of various substances secreted in the liver. These tests give detailed information about tumors such as CA 19.9 and CEA. Blood tests are methods used to obtain information in the follow-up of patients with a clear diagnosis.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan)

This screening method is used in cancer cases that have progressed. It is a method that is mostly used to determine which regions the cancer cells have spread to.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreaticography (ERCP)

It is a diagnostic method that is entered from the duodenum and provides imaging in areas such as pancreatic duct and bile ducts. In cases of pancreatic cancer, imaging techniques and blood tests are usually sufficient.

What are the Stages of Pancreatic Cancer?

As in every disease, there are various stages in pancreatic cancer. In the first stage, the cancer is limited to the pancreas and when diagnosed early, it is surgically removed and the patient gets rid of this problem. In the second stage, the disease begins to spread outside the organ and can spread to nearby tissues and lymph nodes. At this stage, it is possible to perform surgery. In the third stage, cancer cells spread to all nearby blood vessels. In this case, the surgery may not always give a definite result. In the fourth stage, which is the last stage, cancer cells spread along the lines surrounding the lungs and abdominal organs.

Patients in the first and second stages can return to their normal lives in a short time with effective treatment methods. However, for the treatment of cancer cells that are more advanced and spread to many parts of the body, a longer treatment period is determined. The success of this treatment process depends on the cooperation and communication between the patient and the doctor, as well as the treatment methods applied.

What are the Treatment Methods in Pancreatic Cancer?

There are many factors that affect the treatment process in pancreatic cancer. Many important issues such as the rate of spread of the disease, the stage at which it is, the preferences of the patient, and the general health status are important issues that affect the treatment initiation process. The chance of success in the treatment of pancreatic cancer diagnosed in the early stages is higher than in the later stages.

The first and most efficient treatment method is surgery. This method gives extremely good results in diseases in the first and second stages. This method includes surgical applications and depending on the condition of the cancer, the entire pancreas or only the tumor part is removed. At the same time, the duodenum and lymph nodes can also be removed in the surgery to be performed at this stage, depending on the spread of the disease. Thanks to the early diagnosis of many cancer diseases, it is possible for patients to return to their normal lives with surgery. However, further spread of cancer cells and progression to higher stages may render the surgery ineffective. In such cases, different treatment methods are used.

Radiotherapy is a different method used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. This method can sometimes be applied together with chemotherapy. The combined use of both methods often results in further shrinkage of the tumor and allows for easy surgical removal.

Chemotherapy is drug therapy and aims to destroy cancerous cells. It also helps these cells to lose their ability to grow.

Before Pancreatic Cancer Surgery

Good communication between the patient and the doctor before pancreatic cancer surgery facilitates the healthy progress of the process. The patient must be fully prepared for this surgery. General controls are made before the operation. At this stage, many tests are applied and it is decided whether the patient is physically fit for surgery or notThe results of all tests can be shared with the patient at his/her request. If there is a situation that complicates the patient's surgery, this is reported to both the patient and the patient's relatives. In order to decide on surgery, the age of the patient is also one of the factors that are taken into consideration. Issues such as eating habits and other drugs used, if any, quitting smoking and alcohol consumption are important in this process.

What is the Process After Pancreatic Cancer Treatment?

Only about 20% of people with pancreatic cancer can be diagnosed early. For this reason, the number of people who get rid of this disease with surgery is small. Whether there will be an improvement in the quality of life of people after treatment varies according to the stages of the disease. However, there are multiple factors, such as the patient's response to treatment and general health. After the treatment, it is absolutely necessary to avoid smoking in order for the patients to return to their normal life in a short time and to prevent the malignant cells from renewing themselves. At the same time, a balanced and regular diet is extremely important in this process. Care should be taken not to gain excessive weight, but also to protect their psychological health.

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