MEDICAL SECOND OPINION

Spine Diseases

There are a total of 33 vertebrae in the spine in five major regions: neck (5), back (12), waist (5), sacrum (5) and coccyx (4). Intervertebral discs are located between two neighboring vertebras to enable our spine to bear the load of our body and move the body forward, backward, and on both sides.

While the spine has physiological curvatures on the anterior-posterior plane, it extends straight from the neck to the coccyx on the vertical plane.

The reduction or increase of these physiological curvatures and the spine's rotation or curving sideways are accompanied by many problems.

The goal of spinal surgery is to relieve the pain caused by abnormal curvatures and to correct kyphosis and abnormal body posture to ease the pain, treat joint problems caused by postural disturbance, and manage other neurological symptoms that may even involve fainting in advanced-stage diseases.

Abnormalities in the spine can be congenital or acquired due to causes such as deformation and improper body posture while working. Scoliosis is the most common abnormal curvature of the spine. Scoliosis refers to deformity of the spine. Scoliosis implies a condition where the spine curves sideways at the dorsal and lumbar levels, and it occurs more commonly in girls during rapid increases in body height.
On a lateral view of normal human anatomy, some curvatures can be seen in the spine—for example, the dorsal spine curves back, while the cervical and lumbar spines curve front. However, the spine appears straight on the anteroposterior plane. Scoliosis is an "S" or "C" spine configuration on this plane accompanied by abnormal rotation. Shoulder asymmetry, dorsal hump, abnormal body posture, and lumbar curvature asymmetry can be seen in patients with scoliosis due to the abnormal curvature.

The forward bend test is used to diagnose the condition. If the test yields suspicious results, the person is asked to clench their hands, bend forward, and keep their hands between their knees. Meanwhile, the doctor stands behind the patient to check for an asymmetry in the dorsal spine. If asymmetry is identified, scoliosis is considered. However, you must see a spine surgeon specializing in this condition. Shoulder asymmetry, dorsal hump, and asymmetry of lumbar curvature may be the symptoms of scoliosis.
Scoliosis has many underlying causes. For congenital cases, the problem might arise from the development or separation of vertebrae. Muscle disorders or nervous diseases, such as cerebral palsy, may play a role in neuromuscular cases. However, the condition is most commonly idiopathic; in other words, there is no apparent underlying cause. This type is usually diagnosed in early adolescent girls. Genetic and environmental factors have been claimed.

Your spine surgeon may take measures to stop the progression. No clear evidence exists that lifting heavy objects or hunching the back leads to scoliosis. However, pains originating from the spine can be prevented if you work in good body posture while working with a computer or studying lessons.

Do not worry; scoliosis is a treatable condition. You should necessarily see a spine surgeon as soon as possible. There is no sports limitation. Swimming, volleyball, basketball, and pilates are more commonly recommended as they exercise back muscles and help body balance and control.

Your spine surgeon may take measures to stop the progression.There is no clear evidence that lifting heavy objects or hunching the back leads to scoliosis. However, pains originating from the spine can be prevented, if you work in good body posture while working with computer or studying lessons.

Do not worry; scoliosis is a treatable condition. You should necessarily see a spine surgeon as soon as possible.There is no sports limitation. Swimming, volleyball, basketball and pilates are more commonly recommended as they exercise back muscles and help body balance and control.

Treatment is planned according to the angle of curvature, the patient's age, and the body's developmental level. For narrow angles and early-stage cases, your doctor will offer options of corset and exercise along with regular follow-up. However, the efficacy of these treatment methods has yet to be scientifically proven. Therefore, the curvature may progress. Surgical treatment is recommended for advanced-stage curvatures (angle >45°). Screws are driven to vertebrae, and they are connected using rods. Although spine surgeries are high-risk, the risk can be minimized if specialized surgeons carry out surgeries.

Moreover, advanced technology provides surgeons with substantial means. Now, we use 3D printing technology to drive screws at accurate positions and to prevent damage to the nearby vital tissues (spinal cord, arteries, lungs, etc.) in spinal surgeries. Postoperative care varies for each type of scoliosis, but absorbable stitches are used for idiopathic scoliosis, the most common type. Patient-controlled analgesia is maintained for two days to manage the pain.

If no complication occurs, on average, patients are discharged 3 to 4 days after the surgery. Patients were allowed to take a bath ten days later. Patients can start going to school three weeks later on average. Patients usually do not need a corset after the surgery.

All surgeries are performed with micro-surgical methods under microscopic visualization, and recently, endoscopic procedures have been used; in this discipline, the training and expertise of surgeons are as necessary as the availability of technical equipment.

At Medicana Hospitals, Neurosurgeons, Neurologists, and Physiatrists cooperate in Spine Surgery.
•    Minimally Invasive Surgical Interventions
•    Micro-surgical treatment of Cervical,
•    Thoracic and Lumbar Disc Hernia
•    Surgical Treatment of Stenotic Spinal Canal
•    Spondylolisthesis Surgery
•    Fully Endoscopic Management of Pain
•    Spine Tumors
•    Spinal Cord Tumors
•    Surgical Treatment of Head and Spine Traumas
•    Cerebral Tumor Surgery (Adult and Pediatric)
•    Endoscopic Pituitary Gland Surgeries
•    Cerebrovascular Surgery
•    Hydrocephalus Surgery
•    Congenital Disorders
The postoperative patients or patients who are planned to undergo operation must be assessed concerning various therapy and follow-up options.
Minimally invasive procedures may shorten hospital stays. Hospital stays vary depending on the patient's condition and the procedure, but spinal surgery patients are usually discharged to home within 2 to 3 days. Minimally invasive procedures are believed to cause less postoperative pain than conventional methods, while muscles and soft tissues are untouched. Recently, modern pain management modalities have made the management and relief of pain easier.

Your doctor may recommend physiotherapy to accelerate recovery and strengthening. This will depend on the procedure and your overall physical condition. Unique exercises will help you be strong enough to engage in work and daily activities

You will be educated on correct body posture while sitting, standing, and walking.

The time required to start doing daily activities after the surgery varies depending on the procedure and your condition. Your doctor will postoperatively assess you to ensure that recovery proceeds as expected.

Created at 15.06.2024 04:03
Updated at 15.06.2024 04:03

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